Motor neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a deadly illness that results in a slow but complete loss of function, degrade. Although there is no cure, several medications can halt this neurodegeneration. Scientists have been working to find the cause of ALS so better therapeutics can be developed. Researchers have now discovered an immune molecule that seems to play a crucial role in ALS neurodegeneration, which could lead to drugs to treat the disease. The findings have been reported in Neuron, and they could also apply to other neurodegenerative disorders. When an infection occurs, a host a biological mechanisms are triggered. Immune cells can initiate inflammatory processes, orchestrate the repair of tissue damage, and identify infected cells and destroy them.