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According to a recent study, trapped electrons in graphene quantum dots are very sensitive to external magnetic fields and may be employed as innovative magnetic field sensors with special characteristics.In graphene, an atomically thin layer of carbon, electrons act as if they were massless, similar to how photons, which are massless light particles, do. Although graphene electrons do not move at the speed of light, they exhibit the same energy-momentum relationship as photons and can be described as “ultra-relativistic.” When these electrons are confined in a quantum dot, they travel at high velocity in circular loops around the edge of the dot.

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