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The lungs are two organs in the chest that are crucial for eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood and distributing oxygen throughout the body through inhalation (via exhalation). In some cases of severe injury, trauma, or disease, including advanced lung cancer, a patient may undergo a pneumonectomy, the surgical removal of one lung. In other cases, a partial pneumonectomy, or pulmonary lobectomy, removes one or more lobes of a lung but not the entire organ. While surgery is rarely an option for small cell lung cancer, doctors may treat some cases of non-small cell lung cancers with surgical procedures.Evarts A. Graham completed the first successful pneumonectomy for lung cancer on April 5, 1933, at Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.

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