Hard-to-treat illnesses are frequently treated with antibiotics. A technique known as horizontal gene transfer makes it simple for bacteria to exchange genetic data. This makes it possible for bacteria to share genes that code for resistance to antibiotics, leading to an increase in pathogenic bacteria that are challenging to eradicate when they cause illness. However, scientists have now learned that bacteria may exchange genetic material far more easily than previously believed. While doing so makes use of super polymer structures called F-pili, which are particularly beneficial to bacteria, researchers may be able to employ the technology to create medication delivery systems. The results were published in Nature Communications.