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Centralized laboratory testing has been a standard tool for diagnosing common illnesses. However, laboratory-based testing generally requires expensive medical equipment and involves complex operation protocols that can only be completed within a medical facility by well-trained personnel. These requirements elongate testing time and prevent the widespread use of diagnostics in remote and resource-limited regions due to limited access to centralized labs. To address some of these limitations, point-of-care (POC) sensors were developed as alternative diagnostics tools with simple and rapid operation, compact size, and low cost.Paper-based sensors form the most common type of POC tests, often called lateral flow assays (LFAs), where the injected sample fluid flows horizontally and reacts with the specific test regions (“test lines”), generating, for example, a color change.

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