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One-dimensional gases of extremely cold atoms are used in new experiments that show a universality in how quantum systems made up of several particles evolve over time after a significant energy infusion knocks the system out of equilibrium. A group of Penn State physicists demonstrated that these gases react right away, “evolving” with characteristics that are typical of all “many-body” quantum systems that are perturbed in this way. The trials are detailed in a publication that appears in the journal Nature on May 17, 2023.”Many major advances in physics over the last century have concerned the behavior of quantum systems with many particles,” said David Weiss, Distinguished Professor of Physics at Penn State and one of the leaders of the research team. “Despite the staggering array of diverse ‘many-body’ phenomena.

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